This section is intended to meet the requirements of potential researchers in the field of academics, and the research aspirants, especially students and the prospective researchers in the field of business, industrial and the economic environment.
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MEANING OF ‘RESEARCH’
The term research has been defined in different ways by different authors in different forms, but to put the meaning of ‘research’ in a single sentence, it means, ‘finding an answer to a question’, the question can be of any form, it can arise from the research of a researcher, from the subject knowledge of an academician and the problems and challenges faced by a businessmen or a CEO or a manager, and from the personal experiences of a normal person. The quest to find answer for a question leads to the process of research.
The purpose of finding an answer is different for different persons, but the basic objective should be aimed at benefitting the society at broader level. Be it a researcher, or an academician, or a businessmen or any other human being, should be able to contribute the knowledge obtained by the process of research for the benefit of the society.
PROCESS OF RESEARCH
The process of research is a way of finding a solution (answer) to a problem (question). It is defined based on the type of solution (answer) to be provided for a problem (question) facing by various stakeholders
(The term stakeholder here used to refer to any kind of person who desires of finding a solution (answer) to a problem (question), major categories would be researchers from different fields, academicians, businessmen, students, and other institutional and non-institutional categories and rarely a common man).
The type of solution (answer) that needs to be provided defines the type of research. All the problems (questions) are not unique and hence the solutions (answers). Therefore depending on various types of problems (questions) faced by the stakeholders, solutions (answers) varies and hence categorizing the research into different types.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
For any type of problem, a solution can be provided either in the descriptive form or in a quantitative form. A descriptive form can also be termed as qualitative form, as it provides description about various aspects of a problem in a descriptive way. It provides information about the characteristics, features, or processes that would help to understand a given problem. It did not provide any representation in the form of numerical figures or it did not use any symbols in concluding the observations or the facts related to a problem.
On the other hand, the quantitative form of providing solution to a problem uses numerical figures or symbols to conclude the facts and information and to provide a solution to a problem. Hence, it can be concluded that the basic forms of research would be either descriptive or qualitative (the term qualitative is more boarder then the descriptive) and quantitative. All other types of research are the derivatives of the above two forms.
Let us have a look at other types of researches.
Analytical Research: It is a type of research in which a researcher analyses the facts and figures to arrive at a conclusion. This research is aimed at gathering information only.
Applied Research: It is a type of research in which a researcher analyses the facts and figures related to a given situation, and tries to arrive at an immediate solution. It is basically a problem-solving approach.
Fundamental Research: It is a kind of research in which a researcher is aimed at adding new dimensions to the existing knowledge at the basic level of existing subject knowledge.
He focuses on the fundamental aspects of a subject or an issue and tries to add new dimensions or new knowledge to the subject.
Conceptual Research: It is a kind of research in which a researcher thinks about new ideas or thoughts, which are abstract in nature and needs a concrete process to establish or prove the ideas or thoughts.
Empirical Research: It is kind of research, in which a researcher tries to prove an observation or an idea in a systematic way so as to conclude weather the observation is true or false.
OTHER CATEGORIES OF RESEARCH
The above forms of researches are the basic forms of different researches; they define the purpose behind the initiation of research process. On the other hand, the other forms of researches are mainly categorized based on the time taken for doing a research, the environment in which a research process can be implemented and mainly field or area specific. In the process of emerging the process of research has taken different direction and the researches are mainly classified as field specific researches. In terms of considering the time, researches are classified as one-time research or longitudinal research.
A one-time research can be done only for a specific purpose or for a specific period of time, it is not repetitive in nature. On the other hand, longitudinal research is a process that is continuous and related to specific area or field; it continues with identifying new areas and innovation in a specific field.
The categorization of research is based on the environment in which a research process is executed or implemented. It can be field-setting research, in which a research process is executed in a practical environment, vis-à-vis, a research which is under taken in a laboratory under pre-determined factors is termed as laboratory research or a simulation research. The term simulation research is used to define a research that is done to test an existing model or a pattern or a phenomenon.
The other forms are mainly field or area specific researches like clinical or diagnostic research, that are specific to the field of medicine, historical research, it is relying on the past events, facts, opinions and experiences to understand the present situation or position, it is specific to specific area or field, but is classified based on its specific nature of relying on past information.
The other forms, exploratory or formalized, decision oriented or conclusion oriented are primarily categorized based on the objectives of the researchers, they forms a logical extension of the above basic forms of researches, and hence they were classified under different heads.
An exploratory is primarily aimed at development of a new idea or thought or a identifying an unknown aspect of a situation or an event related to any area or subject. On other hand, a formalized research is about searching for a new dimension or for updating the existing knowledge or information. It is carried on in structured and objective way to achieve the desired outcomes.
An exploratory research under taken with an objective derive a specific conclusion can be termed as conclusion oriented research. A formalized research under taken with an objective to derive a solution as per the existing conditions, in which there are no chances for subjective changes of the researcher. But in the case of exploratory or conclusion oriented researches, the researcher can be subjectively change the process of research to arrive at the desired conclusion.
The explanation on the types of researches is basically provided in a generic way. It is helpful to provide an understanding about different types of researches, it can provide to further classify the researches, add new dimensions to the existing researches. The prospective researchers are advised to go through different types in a detail and in depth manner to understand different dimensions of various research processes.
Explain in detail the purpose and significance of research for various stakeholders in different fields and areas.
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